Pawan Saini

Debt Instruments

New Debt Instruments of SEBI

In 1992, the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) introduced regulations to standardize and oversee various types of new debt instruments. These instruments, including Zero Coupon Debentures/Bonds, Warrants, Deep Discount Bonds, PCD/NCD, and Buyback Arrangements, were brought under a comprehensive framework aimed at ensuring transparency and disclosure. From instruments issued without interest to those with buyback options, SEBI’s norms focused on disclosing critical details, including redemption specifics, collateral arrangements, conversion terms, and interest rates. This regulatory approach aimed to provide investors with essential information, fostering transparency and regulation in the financial market.

Debt Instruments

Here we will discuss various types of debt instruments. These regulations encompassed several types of instruments:

Zero-Coupon Debentures/Bonds

These debt instruments, issued at a discount and redeemed at par, don’t provide interest during their tenure. The return to the investor is the difference between the issue and redemption prices.


Attached to bonds or debentures, warrants offer the holder the right (but not the obligation) to buy or sell specified shares at a predetermined price within a specified duration, enhancing the attractiveness of the associated securities.

Deep Discount Bonds

Issued at substantially lower prices than their face value and redeemed at higher rates after a prolonged period, these bonds don’t yield interest during their tenure, offering substantial returns.


Partly Convertible Debentures (PCD) comprise convertible and non-convertible portions. The convertible section can transform into equity at predefined rates, while the non-convertible part pays fixed interest. Non-convertible debentures (NCD) don’t convert into equity and redeem at par or a premium, offering fixed or floating interest rates.

Buyback Arrangement with Secured Premium Notes

These instruments include a buyback option for the issuer at a predetermined price and date. They are backed by collateral that can be used in case of default, providing investors with a premium during buyback.


SEBI’s 1992 norms aimed to standardize new debt instruments, focusing on Zero Coupon Debentures/Bonds, Warrants, Deep Discount Bonds, PCD/NCD, and Buyback Arrangements. These regulations prioritized transparency, outlining redemption specifics, collateral quality, conversion terms, interest rates, and more. The framework ensured investors received vital information about diverse financial instruments, fostering a transparent and regulated market.

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Surrogate Advertising: Navigating the Promotion of Restricted Products

Surrogate Advertising: Navigating the Promotion of Restricted Products

Surrogate Advertising employs indirect methods to promote products banned in certain markets, such as alcohol, cigarettes, or prescription drugs. This approach involves associating the banned products with others, using subtle means to convey the message without explicit mentions.

Examples of Surrogate Advertising in Different Industries

In India, industries like alcohol, cigarettes, and pharmaceuticals employ surrogate advertising due to direct advertising bans. Brands cleverly use tactics like humorous commercials, fashion events, or health discussions to indirectly promote restricted products, circumventing advertising restrictions. Here, we will discuss some examples of indirect advertising in various Industries.

1. Alcohol

In India, alcohol advertising is banned, prompting brands to use surrogate methods. For instance, Imperial Blue cleverly uses the tagline “Men will be men” in humorous commercials featuring various situations, avoiding direct depiction of the whisky. Kingfisher, a beer brand, adopts similar tactics using mineral water, soda, and calendars.

2. Cigarettes

With a ban on cigarette advertising in India, brands like Wills utilize surrogate techniques. Wills Lifestyle, a fashion division, indirectly promotes the cigarette brand through apparel stores and fashion events, circumventing direct advertising restrictions.

3. Pharmaceuticals

Due to restrictions on prescription drug advertising in many countries, pharmaceutical companies turn to surrogate methods. Pfizer’s campaign “Be Ready” subtly advertises its erectile dysfunction drug Viagra through health and fitness discussions, without explicitly mentioning the drug name.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Surrogate Advertising

Surrogate advertising has advantages, including sustaining brand awareness and fostering product differentiation, while also posing disadvantages such as potential misinformation, influence on consumer choices, and public health concerns.


  • Brand Awareness and Recall: Surrogate Advertising aids in maintaining or increasing brand awareness and recall despite legal restrictions.
  • Product Differentiation: Advertisers can differentiate their products creatively, fostering customer loyalty.
  • Leveraging Associations: Advertisers benefit from associating their products with popular or credible entities.


  • Misleading Information: Indirect advertising may mislead consumers by not providing clear or accurate information about the products.
  • Influence on Consumer Choices: It can influence consumer preferences by using persuasive messages that may not reflect the true value of the products.
  • Public Health Concerns: Indirect advertising may contribute to public health issues by promoting products that are harmful or addictive.


Surrogate Advertising is a strategy employed in industries facing advertising restrictions, promoting banned products indirectly. It presents both advantages and disadvantages, impacting brand awareness, consumer perception, and public health. Effective regulation and monitoring are crucial to addressing the complexities and controversies surrounding indirect advertising.

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Promotional Strategies for Tourist Resort and Business School

Promotional Strategies for Tourist Resort and Business School

Tourist resorts and business schools both aim to attract attention and engage their respective audiences through targeted promotional strategies. While resorts leverage traditional and modern media to highlight their amenities and allure, business schools utilize diverse channels to showcase academic excellence, faculty expertise, and networking opportunities for prospective students and industry stakeholders.

Tourist Resort

A tourist resort is a place that offers accommodation, entertainment, and recreational activities for visitors. To attract more customers, a tourist resort needs to use effective promotional strategies that can reach many people and provide detailed information about the resort’s features and benefits. Some of the possible promotional strategies are:

1. Television, newspapers, and magazines

These traditional media channels can reach a wide audience and create awareness and interest in the resort. The resort can use attractive visuals, catchy slogans, and testimonials to showcase the resort’s location, hotels, food, facilities, and other amenities.

2. Social media and online advertising

These contemporary media channels enable targeted outreach to specific customer segments, facilitating personalized and interactive communication. The resort can leverage popular social media platforms like Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter to showcase captivating photos, videos, and narratives about the resort’s activities, events, and special offers. Additionally, online advertising tools such as Google Ads, Bing Ads, and YouTube Ads can be employed to present pertinent and compelling advertisements to potential customers actively searching for travel-related keywords or exploring relevant websites.

Business School

A business school is an educational institution that offers courses and degrees in business administration, management, and related fields. To increase its enrollment and reputation, a business school needs to use effective promotional strategies that can highlight its academic excellence, faculty expertise, student achievements, and alumni network. Some of the possible promotional strategies are:

1. Print media and electronic media

These traditional media channels can reach a large and diverse audience and create credibility and trust in the school. The school can use print media such as newspapers, magazines, and brochures to provide detailed information about the school’s programs, curriculum, admission process, and scholarships. The school can also use electronic media such as radio, television, and podcasts to feature interviews, discussions, and testimonials of the school’s faculty, students, and alumni.

2. Website and email marketing

These are modern media channels that can provide convenient and timely communication with prospective and current students, parents, and employers. The school can use its website to showcase its vision, mission, values, achievements, and facilities. The school can also use email marketing to send newsletters, updates, invitations, and reminders to its subscribers and contacts.


Tourist resorts and business schools deploy diverse promotional strategies to engage their audiences. Resorts blend traditional methods like TV, and print, and modern tools like social media, targeting customers with appealing visuals and engaging content. Meanwhile, business schools utilize print, electronic media, website, and email marketing to showcase academic excellence and networking opportunities. Both sectors strategically leverage a mix of traditional and modern channels to captivate their audiences, aiming to boost engagement and solidify their reputation.

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Understanding Currency Exposure Transaction vs. Economic

Understanding Currency Exposure Transaction vs. Economic

Understanding the nuances of Transaction vs. Economic Exposure is vital in global finance. Transaction Exposure deals with the immediate impact on currency values, while Economic Exposure focuses on the broader, long-term effects on a firm’s overall value due to unexpected exchange rate changes.

1. Nuances of Transaction 

making or receiving payments for goods and services,

Repaying loans or meeting interest payments,

Executing dividend payments, royalty payments, etc.

In these cases, the foreign currency value remains fixed, introducing uncertainty regarding the home currency value. For instance, consider an Indian exporter expecting $10,000 in receivables in three months. If the dollar depreciates against the rupee during this period, a cash loss occurs; conversely, a gain arises with dollar appreciation. 

2. Navigating Currency Challenges: Economic Exposure Unveiled

On the other side of the coin is economic exposure, encapsulating the change in a firm’s value due to unexpected shifts in exchange rates. Also known as operating or long-term cash flow exposure, economic exposure reflects the variability in a firm’s value resulting from unanticipated changes in exchange rates. The extent of a firm’s economic exposure hinges on the structure of its input and output markets.

To illustrate, a firm can manage the effects of exchange rate changes on its competitiveness by strategically adjusting markets, product mix, and input sourcing. The goal is to ensure a smooth flow of cash, particularly in situations with variable exchange rates. By understanding and addressing both transactional and economic exposure, businesses can navigate the complex landscape of global currency fluctuations with greater confidence and resilience.

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Understanding the International Fisher Effect (IFE)

Understanding the International Fisher Effect (IFE)

In the realm of international finance, understanding the International Fisher Effect (IFE) is paramount for grasping the intricate interplay between nominal interest rates, real interest rates, and anticipated rates of inflation.

1. Components of Nominal Interest Rates

At the core of the International Fisher Effect is the nominal interest rate, which consists of a real interest rate and an expected rate of inflation. This nominal rate is flexible, adjusting based on expectations of changes in inflation rates. Anticipatedly higher inflation leads to a higher nominal interest rate, while lower expected inflation results in a lower nominal interest rate—a phenomenon known as the Fisher effect.

2. The Fisher Effect Equation 

The International Fisher Effect is formally expressed through an equation: (S1-S0)/S0 * 100 = rh-rf. Here, rh and rf represent the nominal interest rates in two countries, the United States and India. S0 and S1 denote the spot exchange rates at the beginning and end of the period, respectively. This equation serves as a mathematical representation of the relationship between nominal interest rates and expected inflation differentials.

3. Perfecting International Capital Markets 

In a world where international capital markets adhere to the International Fisher Effect, equivalent-risk investments in different countries should yield the same expected real rate of return. Arbitrage acts as the balancing force. If one country offers a higher expected real rate of return than another, capital flows will occur, creating opportunities for riskless arbitrage profits. This arbitrage activity persists until a balance is established in the expected real returns between the two countries.

4. Aligning Real Returns Across Borders

The crux of the International Fisher Effect is the idea that, in the absence of barriers to capital mobility, real returns and nominal interest rates will align across international borders. If the real rates of return are identical in two countries, any changes in nominal interest rates will precisely account for alterations in inflation rates. Essentially, the International Fisher Effect asserts that the nominal interest rate differential must equal the expected inflation rate differential between two countries. This principle underscores the role of capital flows and arbitrage activities in creating equilibrium in international financial markets.

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Unveiling the Advantages of the Forex Market

Unveiling the Advantages of the Forex Market

Explore the benefits and advantages of the forex market! Trade whenever and wherever suits you best, with constant access, low entry requirements, and flexibility. Grasp the concept of pips for savvy trading. Make profits in diverse market conditions. Enjoy user-friendly access to your funds, reducing potential risks.

1. Around-the-Clock Accessibility

The inherent advantages of the forex market are evident in its 24/7 accessibility, which sets it apart from regular stock markets. This continuous availability adds a layer of convenience, making it practical for individuals with busy schedules or diverse commitments. 

2. Flexibility: Anytime, Anywhere

The flexibility of trading on the forex market is one of its standout advantages. With just a computer and internet access, anyone can participate from any location at any time. This inclusivity contributes to its widespread appeal, allowing individuals to seamlessly integrate trading into their daily lives.

3. Low capital entry

Forex trading breaks the mold of the high capital requirements seen in many other investment opportunities. With a modest investment of $300 USD, you can open a “mini account” and gain access to trading 10,000 units. This low entry barrier highlights the advantages of inclusivity, encouraging a broader range of participants in the market.

4. Understanding Pips and Scalability

The concept of a “pip,” representing price fluctuations in a currency pair, introduces a layer of simplicity. Each pip equals a $1 gain or loss, depending on the market direction. Scalability is evident with a standard account controlling 100,000 units of currency, making each pip worth $10. This scalability underscores the advantages of the forex market in terms of convenience and versatility.

5. Profiting in All Market Conditions

Unlike stock market traders, who rely on rising prices, forex traders benefit from the inherent advantage of profiting from both upward and downward market movements. This adaptability positions forex traders to navigate various market conditions, enhancing their potential for success.

6. Immediate access to capital

A significant advantage is the immediate access to capital in forex trading. Unlike investments that tie up funds for extended periods, forex traders can readily access their capital, minimizing the risk of significant losses due to liquidity issues.

7. Conclusion

While acknowledging the inherent risks in all investments, success in forex trading is attainable with prudent self-discipline and proper training in investment decision-making. The advantages of the forex market provide a solid foundation for potential profitability with relatively lower risks when approached with knowledge and discipline.


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Understanding the Globalization Drivers in Business

Understanding the Globalization Drivers in Business

Embracing global markets is essential for businesses navigating the interconnected world. Understanding the key globalization drivers in business, including technological advancements, financial market liberalization, and competitive pressures, is crucial for success in the dynamic global business landscape. 

1. Technological Advancements

One pivotal driver of this global transition is the rapid advancement in information and computer technologies. These innovations act as powerful catalysts, streamlining financial operations and enhancing the ease with which companies can collect, process, and monitor financial risks associated with diverse instruments. In essence, technology is at the forefront of the globalization movement, making the world more accessible and interconnected for businesses. 

2. Financial Market Liberalization

Another significant force propelling companies toward global markets is the liberalization of national financial and capital markets. As countries open up their financial sectors, businesses discover new opportunities to expand beyond borders. This economic liberalization creates an environment conducive to cross-border transactions and investments, compelling companies to explore global markets and leverage the possibilities that emerge.

3. Competitive Pressures

Competitive dynamics among providers of financial intermediary services also play a pivotal role in the global expansion of businesses. Fierce competition for market share and relevance compels financial service providers to extend their reach beyond national boundaries. This not only benefits consumers with a diverse range of services but also prompts companies to establish a global presence, ensuring competitiveness in the rapidly evolving financial landscape.

4. Real Economic Activity

Advancements in real economic activity further drive the globalization trend. As industries and businesses undergo transformations due to technological innovation and changing consumer demands, companies are motivated to seek opportunities on a global scale. The interconnectedness of economies and the potential for synergies across borders encourage companies to expand internationally, tapping into diverse markets and leveraging the unique advantages offered by different regions. 

5. Conclusion

In summary, the convergence of technological advancements, financial market liberalization, competitive pressures, and real economic activity collectively fosters a global mindset among businesses. Embracing globalization is no longer merely an option but a strategic imperative for companies seeking to thrive in a world that is increasingly interconnected and characterized by rapid change. By understanding and navigating these drivers, businesses can position themselves for success in the global business landscape.


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Global Dynamics: Understanding International Market Exposures

Global Dynamics: Understanding International Market Exposures

In an environment characterized by a floating exchange rate, frequent fluctuations in currency values can significantly impact a firm engaged in international operations. These international market exposures influence the value of assets and liabilities recorded in financial books, as well as the present and future cash flow streams. Consequently, companies are exposed to foreign exchange risks. The various international market exposures a firm may encounter include

1. Accounting or Translation Exposure

This exposure arises due to changes in the exchange rate, impacting the valuation of a company’s assets and liabilities in its financial statements. International market exposures reflect the potential translation adjustments needed when financial statements are converted from one currency to another, affecting reported profits and the financial health of the firm.

2. Economic Exposure

Economic exposure results from broader economic changes in the international market. It involves the impact of exchange rate fluctuations on the future cash flows of the firm. This international market exposure is more complex and extends beyond the accounting realm, affecting the overall financial performance and strategic decisions of the company.

3. Transaction Exposure

Transaction exposure occurs when a firm engages in international trade and faces risks related to the timing and amount of its cash flows. It is associated with the impact of exchange rate fluctuations on the value of individual transactions, affecting the cost of goods, revenues, and other financial obligations 

4. real operating exposure

Real operating exposure encompasses the long-term impact of currency fluctuations on a company’s operating income. It goes beyond the immediate financial aspects and considers the strategic and competitive position of the firm in the international market, taking into account factors such as pricing, market share, and cost structures.

In summary, these international market exposures highlight the multifaceted challenges that companies must navigate when operating in the international market under a floating exchange rate regime. Each type of exposure requires careful consideration and risk management strategies to ensure the firm’s stability and success in the global business landscape.

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Understanding Forex Market Instruments

Understanding Forex Market Instruments

The forex market instruments encompass a diverse range, broadly classified into two main types: international bonds and short- and medium-term instruments. 

1.  Exploring Forex Market Instruments

In the intricate realm of the forex market, a myriad of instruments unfolds, primarily categorized into international bonds and short- to medium-term instruments. The domain of international bonds unfolds into a diverse spectrum featuring

(a). Foreign Bonds Securities issued in a foreign currency within a host country, presenting investors with opportunities in global markets.

(b). Straight Bonds Traditional fixed-income securities that pay periodic interest and return the principal at maturity.

(c). Floating Rate Notes (FRNs) Dynamic instruments whose interest rates fluctuate with prevailing market rates, offering adaptability to changing economic conditions.

(d). Zero Coupon and Deep Discount Bonds Unconventional bonds that do not distribute regular interest payments but are instead sold at a discount, with the face value payable at maturity.

(e). Convertible Bonds Bonds that grant the holder the option to convert them into a predetermined number of common shares, providing a blend of fixed-income and equity features.

(f). Cocktail Bonds Innovative financial instruments that combine various elements of traditional bonds, catering to diverse investor preferences.

(g). Yankee Bonds Bonds denominated in U.S. dollars but issued by foreign entities, providing access to U.S. capital markets.

2. short- and medium-term instruments unfold their significance, featuring

(a). Euro Notes Short-term debt securities denominated in euros, serving as a vehicle for borrowing in the European financial landscape.

(b). Euro Commercial Papers Unsecured, short-term debt instruments issued by corporations, offering flexibility in managing short-term funding needs.

(c). Medium-Term Notes Securities with maturities ranging from one to ten years, catering to investors seeking a balance between short-term and long-term investment options.

(d). ADR and GDR (American Depository Receipts and Global Depository Receipts) Instruments facilitate the trading of foreign stocks in U.S. markets, providing investors with indirect exposure to international equities.

In essence, understanding the intricate tapestry of forex market instruments is paramount for investors navigating the dynamic landscape, enabling them to make informed decisions aligned with their financial objectives and risk tolerance.

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Understanding Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)

 Understanding Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)

Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) serves as a cornerstone principle in comprehending international exchange rates. Essentially, PPP asserts that the exchange rate between two countries’ currencies hinges on the ratio of prices for goods in those nations. 

1. Absolute and Relative Dynamics of PPP

In absolute terms, PPP contends that the exchange rate should shift in response to changes in the price levels of goods in the respective countries. In simpler terms, if the price of a basket of goods is higher in one country than another, the exchange rate should adjust to reflect this difference. Meanwhile, in relative terms, PPP suggests that the exchange rate adapts based on variations in the inflation rates of the two countries.

2. The formal expression of PPP

Formally expressed through an equation, This equation essentially states that the difference in inflation rates should be equal to the percentage change in the exchange rate over time. The formal expression of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) is a theory in economics that suggests that in the long run, exchange rates between two currencies should move towards the rate that equalizes the prices of an identical basket of goods and services in any two countries. The basic formula for PPP is expressed as follows:


S = P1/P2



 ( S ) is the exchange rate between two currencies.

 ( P1 ) is the price level in the domestic country.

 ( P2 ) is the price level in the foreign country.


In a more detailed form, the PPP theory is often expressed using the following equation:


S = eP/P



 ( S ) is the exchange rate.

 ( e ) is the base currency (foreign currency) per unit of the domestic currency.

 ( P ) is the price level in the foreign country.

 ( P ) is the price level in the domestic country.

The idea behind PPP is that changes in exchange rates over time should reflect changes in relative price levels between two countries. If the price level in one country rises relative to another, the exchange rate should adjust to reflect this difference and maintain parity in the purchasing power of the two currencies. 

3. Linking Inflation and Exchange Rates

In summary, purchasing power parity The PPP establishes a crucial link between inflation rates and exchange rates. Changes in the relative prices of goods, as indicated by inflation differentials, are mirrored by adjustments in exchange rates to maintain parity. This concept plays a pivotal role in comprehending and predicting currency valuations in the dynamic landscape of the global marketplace. In essence, understanding PPP provides valuable insights into the intricate dynamics of international finance.



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Navigating the World of Foreign Exchange Transactions

Navigating the World of Foreign Exchange Transactions

In the expansive realm of foreign exchange transactions, various types facilitate the exchange of currencies, each playing a pivotal role in shaping the dynamics of global currency trading. 

1. Spot Transactions: Seizing the Moment 

Imagine you and another party engaging in foreign exchange transactions, swiftly exchanging currencies, and sealing the deal on the spot—no delays. That’s what a spot transaction in the foreign exchange market is all about. The spot exchange rate, a key factor in these transactions, represents the rate at which a currency can be bought or sold for immediate delivery within two business days after the trade. You’ll often find these rates in financial publications. 

2. Forward Exchange Rate: Planning for the Future 

Looking ahead, the forward foreign exchange rate comes into play when the delivery of a currency is set for a future date. The rate is determined at the current moment but is applied to the delivery at a specified later date. Notably, in terms of volume, the foreign exchange spot market outstrips the forward exchange market in these transactions.

3. Swap Transactions: Blending Present and Future 

Enter the world of foreign exchange swap transactions, a seamless blend of spot and forward exchanges. Here, two currencies are initially exchanged, and the process repeats at maturity. The fundamental principle involves the initial exchange of two currencies, followed by a subsequent re-exchange at the agreed-upon maturity date.

In essence, these foreign exchange transaction types collectively form the intricate tapestry of the forex market. Understanding the nuances of each transaction is crucial for those navigating the complexities of global currency exchange. Whether you’re seizing the moment, planning for the future, or blending present and future, each foreign exchange transaction type adds its own unique thread to the vibrant fabric of forex trading.



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Understanding Global Finances and the SWIFT System

Understanding Global Finances and the SWIFT System

The SWIFT system, an abbreviation for the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication, had its roots planted in Brussels in 1973. This collaborative organization has a clear mission: to advance standardized global interactions in financial transactions. Initially designed to establish a global communications link for data processing and a common language for international financial transactions, the SWIFT system has grown into a vital facilitator of seamless communication among member banks worldwide.

1. The Swift Process for Navigating Financial Messaging 

At its core, the SWIFT system operates a specialized messaging service crafted for financial messages. This includes pivotal transactions such as letters of credit, payments, and securities transactions. The primary function of the SWIFT system is to expedite the delivery of these messages swiftly and securely. Recognizing the critical importance of speed and security in financial dealings, member organizations generate formatted messages, which are then seamlessly transmitted to the SWIFT system for efficient delivery to the designated recipient member organization.

2. Headquarters and Operations A Global Network 

The SWIFT system centrally operates from its headquarters in Brussels, overseeing data processing at specialized centers located in Belgium and the United States. This global network signifies the organization’s commitment to maintaining the integrity and confidentiality of financial communications. The SWIFT system stands as a reliable and secure channel for global financial interactions, with its headquarters serving as the nerve center for its operations. 

3. The SWIFT System Today: A Pillar of Financial Efficiency 

In its current role, the SWIFT system continues to be a crucial player in the financial landscape. It provides essential messaging and transaction processing services, contributing significantly to the efficiency and security of international financial transactions. The history of the SWIFT system, dating back to its founding in 1973, showcases its unwavering commitment to fostering a standardized and interconnected global financial network. The SWIFT system remains a cornerstone in the ever-evolving world of international finance.



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