Business Communication

 Importance of the Money Market

 Importance of the Money Market

The money market is a segment of the financial market where short-term borrowing and lending of funds occur. The importance of the money market is to facilitate the management of short-term financial needs and liquidity for various participants, including banks, financial institutions, corporations, and governments.

The Importance of the Money Market

The modern economy thrives on the functionality of the money market. This dynamic financial area plays a pivotal role in various aspects of our financial landscape. Let’s take a closer look at the Importance of the Money Market in our Economy:

1. Fostering Trade and Industry Growth

On one hand, the money market acts as a catalyst for expanding trade, making it easier for businesses to access the capital they need. This, in turn, fuels industrial growth and economic development. It provides businesses with a convenient avenue to meet their capital requirements.

2. Financing Domestic and International Trade

Within the money market, there’s a crucial instrument called the “bill of exchange.” This financial tool aids in financing both domestic and foreign trade transactions, making it easier for businesses to engage in commerce.

3. Banking Efficiency

Banks, the lifeblood of our financial system, rely on the money market for their operational efficiency. It ensures they can maintain the required cash reserve ratios, which, in turn, enables them to meet the demands of their depositors without any hiccups. In essence, a well-functioning money market is the backbone of banking operations.

4. Implementation of Central Bank Policies

Central banks are tasked with maintaining monetary stability and managing the overall financial health of a nation. They rely on short-term interest rates within the money market to gauge the monetary and banking conditions. These rates serve as a compass, guiding the central bank in shaping its monetary policies.

5. Government Functionality

A developed money market is not just a financial playground; it’s also essential for the smooth functioning of the government. It aids in managing public debt and raises short-term funds efficiently. Today, borrowing money isn’t the sole solution for covering deficits; it’s just one piece of the fiscal puzzle. Without a robust money market, the government might resort to less ideal measures, such as printing more currency or borrowing directly from the central bank, potentially leading to inflationary pressures.

In essence, the money market is the backbone of our financial system, ensuring the wheels of trade, industry, and government continue to turn smoothly. Its significance cannot be overstated in our modern economic landscape.

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meaning of a Project

Define a Project report & its objectives

Define a Project report may be defined as an interesting and challenging experience, which is often time-consuming, costly venture, and often complex. A project has a definite starting and finishing date, a clearly defined objective, and a defined budget. A project report is not only a piece of technical writing but also a medium of communicating to people about detailed aspects of the project.

Major components of a project report & its objectives

Major components of a project report

  • AIM/objective. A project has a definite aim. A project cannot be called finished until all the objectives/aims are fulfilled.
  • Team or CommitteeWhen the objectives of the project are chalked out, A committee is formed with the motive of working together to complete the project successfully.
  • Specific Time Period. A project is restricted to being completed within a time period. The deadline is always set before starting a project so that work on the project does not longer indefinitely.
  • Different Yardsticks. No two projects are alike, every project has varied problems, demands, and scope. For instance, no two flyover projects are alike, connecting different types of roads, bifurcations, breadth, etc. are certain tasks that make a project different.
  • Budget. Limited funds are provided for the project and it is expected that expenses should not exceed the pre-decided Budget. (vi) Different Stages/phases. Every project has to pass through different stages and each stage has to meet its time limit. If asked, a report on each phase has to be made available to the authorities.

Objectives of preparing a project report

  • The significant aim of preparing a project report is to let the reader be appraised of the situation how much of the work has been completed and how much needs to be done within a definite period.
  • There are four basic sub-objectives: (a) One is to establish familiarity with the problem.
  • Establishing your expertise helps in building up competence.
  • Try to maximize the reader’s insight. One can achieve this by using wisdom in drawing attention to the aspects of the problem, on which one’s results crucially depend. Lay stress upon parts of one’s analysis which simply explains what should be done and why it should be done. Explanation is only describing your necessity as inference is not sufficient enough. If the client does not understand what the problem is by reading your report, then the client is likely not to implement your recommendations.
  • Minimizing the reader’s effort. Due to a hectic schedule, the client may not have time to go through your report thoroughly. If you will provide them with quick and easy ways to go through your project report the client is more likely to read it and understand it well.

Importance of summary, conclusion & recommendations

A specific report of any company may consist of the following things:

1. Introduction to the project

General information about the project is provided. It includes mention of things which are to be done in the new project and probable expenditure of the project. The gist summary or main aspect of the project has to be given.

2. Management profile

 The introduction of the Management has to be given. This may include the following:

(i) Company profile: Brief description of the Company, i.e.,

    • What is the constitution of the company
    • Date of Incorporation
    • Registered office Plant location
    • Sector, i.e., Public/Private
    • Name of the Business House

(ii) Promoters’ background: Information about the promoters is included. This consists of the following:

    • Brief biodata of promoters, i.e., their name, address, age, education, their association with the company, etc.
    • Promoter’s association with other company(s), if any.
    • Promoter’s standing in the company.

(iii) Brief history/Current operations:

    • Brief History/Background of the Company in a chronological manner.
    • Tax status of promoters.

(iv) Management and organization:

    • It will talk about how the company will be managed.
    • Who is the Board of Directors?
    • Who will manage the particular departments?

3. Project details

 It consists of the main part of the report includes the following:

(i) The formal proposal: What actually, is it to be done?

(ii) Location: This includes

    • Arrangements were made to acquire the land.
    • Area and cost of the land.
    • Valuation basis and mode of payment. Details about how the building will be constructed

(iii) Manufacturing Process. It includes

    • The technical process to be employed.
    • Is the process labor/capital intensive?
    • Flow charts process.
    • Advantages/Disadvantages of alternative process.

(iv) Technical arrangements:

    • Proposed technical arrangements.
    • Person Persons recruited as technical experts for the project.

(v) Procurement of Machinery:

    • Reasons for the selection of equipment for the project.
    • Details about imported and indigenous plant/machinery along with specifications.

(vi) Raw Material:

    • Need of raw materials.
    • Any distribution control, if any.
    • The detailed arrangement of procuring raw materials.

(vii) Utilities: Manpower requirements. These include:

    • Category of employees.
    • Their recruitment plan, etc.

(viii)  Power and electricity:

    • Source of power supply, whether purchased or owned.
    • Maximum demand
    • Peak hour requirements – Cost of acquiring
    • Standby arrangements

(ix)  Effluent Disposal:

    • Details of the nature of the soil, water, and air pollution if any
    • Permission was obtained for the same.

(x)  Water:

    • Requirements for circulating, process, and Sources for water arrangements.
    • Capacity, storage arrangements. – Procedure for water treatment, if any.

(xi)  Steam/Fuel:

    • Requirement for fuel/steam.
    • Sources for processing the same
    • Capacity and type of the boiler with detailed specifications.

(xii)  Refrigeration

    • Requirement for refrigeration/air conditioning
    • Sources for availing the need for air-conditioning/refrigeration
    • Expenses

(xiii)  Compressed Air

    • Requirement for compressed air
    • sources for availing the compressed
    • An arrangement was made for it
    • Expenses/cost

4. Cost of the project

This is one of the major of projects as all concerned parties will be interested in it. This includes the cost of the project under the Following head

  • Land and Site Development
  • Building and Civil work
  • Plant and Machinery
  • Technical know-how
  • Miscellaneous Fixed Assets
  • Utilities and Electricals
  • Preliminary and Preoperative
  • Working capital margin
  • Contingencies

5. Means of financing

  • Land and Site Development
  • Building and Civil work
  • Plant and Machinery
  • Technical know-how
  • Miscellaneous Fixed Assets
  • Utilities and Electricals
  • Preliminary and Preoperative
  • Working capital margin
  • Contingencies

6. Government approvals

It requires fulfilling all formalities in order to obtain necessary government approvals.

  • Status of Government Approvals.
  • Specifications about Government Approvals to be taken.
  • Licenses to be obtained.
  • Clearances under the MRTP Act.
  • Approval of technical collaborations.

7. Marketing and selling

 Things to be kept in mind with regard to the following:

  • Brief information on products, major uses, target market, competitors, etc.
  • Future, and existing demand
  • Export Possibilities
  • Area of Marketing, i.e., International, Indigenous marketing.
  • Methods to be employed
  • Institutional sales
  • Details about whether direct methods will be employed.

8. Financing Summary

  • Projected Financial Summary
  • Expected Production and Sales
  • Projected Profitability Statement
  • Basis assumption for profitability
  • Projected Balance Sheet
  • Projected Cash Flow Statement
  • Calculation of Debt Service Coverage Ratio
  • Calculation of Working Capital Requirements
  • Term loan and Interest Repayment schedule
  • Calculation of Break-Even Point

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Discuss different cultural variables

Eye Contact/Eye Movement

In India, the practice of maintaining steady eye contact during meetings is not followed as it is considered inappropriate to look straight into the eyes of seniors or women. It is a mark of respect or cultural etiquette in India. Even in Indonesia, China, and Japan keeping one’s eyes lower is standard practice. Contrary to this in U.S.A and U.K., maintaining eye contact during business dealings ensures confidence and builds up trust.


Shaking hands with someone is a form of greeting or you acknowledge a person’s presence. In some countries, it is a standard practice but in countries like India or China, shaking hands with seniors or women is not considered appropriate. With women, it somehow is derogatory as it marks the unequal status of men and women within an organization.

Saying Yes/No

Saying a simple ‘Yes’ or `No’ also is different in various cultures. In India when the head is moved from left to right, it means ‘No and if the head is moved up and down, it signifies a ‘Yes’. Americans and Canadians shake their heads back and forth while in Japan, people move their right hand to say No’

Sign language

Universal audio or video symbols are recognized. Traffic and road signs, signs for public utility, and public services accessible to both literates and non-literates.

Body language

Certain gestures are culturally specific. Chewing of paans is considered a Bengali’s habit whereas loud voices and aggressive gestures are linked to people belonging to the Haryana side.

Audiovisual language

Nowadays a fusion of both Hindi and English languages has given way to the newly evolved ‘Hinglish’ language. ‘Yell Dil Maange More’ is one such example of an advertisement jingle using Hinglish language.

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Define verbal or oral communication. Discuss its advantages or do you agree that there are disadvantages of the oral system of communication?

Most of the time we require verbal communication. In all-natural situations right from morning till evening, we speak to communicate. Oral communication requires the presence and also synchronization of both the speaker and listener. Each must respond to the body language of the other. Oral communication occurs in situations like face-to-face conversations, telephonic talks, presentations, interview meetings, public speech, etc.


  • Immediate Feedback. Interjections and clarifications are a big part of verbal communication. A point can always be asked to be elaborated and is always again emphasized by the speaker so that immediate feedback can be given.
  • Time Saving/Economical. Verbal communication not only saves time but is inexpensive too as no stationery is required for this purpose in an organization.
  • The instrument for Persuasion. Just by sounding personal, a person can convince thus verbal communication is useful for persuading.
  • Correction was possible. It gives an opportunity to the speaker to correct himself and make himself clear by changing his tone, voice, pitch, etc.
  • Better Expression. When a person talks to a group he must be well understood. The group reaction is understood on the spot and an adequate conclusion is derived at. The addressee has the flexibility to change its speech according to the understanding power of the audience.


  • There may be a wastage of time sometimes if speeches go on for too long without reaching any satisfactory conclusion.
  • As there is no official record of oral communication, the messages have no legal validity or importance.
  • Misunderstandings crop up as oral/verbal communication is not well-organized.
  • Inattention is a bigger problem in verbal communication as the audience gets bored of long speeches.
  • There is a lack of responsibility. As these messages are not recorded no one can be held accountable in case of mistake, inaccuracy, or untrue statements.

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Discuss the steps involved in evaluating sources?

There are five steps involved in the evaluation of sources:

1. Structure

  • When you begin with a book, start by checking out the table of contents. Formulate the shape of your thesis/Research topic, then identify the 9 places that your question or thesis might be most directly addressed. Check out the subsections. If something is missing, try to substantiate Up from other sources.
  • Establish the context for discussion and determine the author’s intent by 6 going through the Introduction or Preface. You may find the author’s thesis statement there.
  • Check out Diagrams, Figures, Tables or Appendices and see what kind of things make it into the Endnotes section. Look at the topics of the Index at the back. Which of the entries has most page numbers listed next to it? It will provide pointers to the subjects that contribute to the real scope of the book.
  • In order to find out about the Journal Article, check out the “abstract” for the summary. If it deals with your Research topic, then go through the background or introduction section which will normally have “Literature review” or Summary of what others have mentioned/said. Now you can read the Body of the article for details. Thus the process starts with the Introduction and ends with the Conclusion making analysis of essays an easier task.

2. Purpose

Check out the title and first few paragraphs. What is the author’s intention or motive? Any assumptions to be challenged? If there is any bias? Find out the publisher or organizational institutional affiliation of the author. Does the author have a particular interest in influencing you one way or another?

3. Audience

Who is the target audience? Who does the intended audience appear to be? What interest does the target audience have in the issue?

4. Author

The first step would be to establish the credibility of the author? Has the authority and expertise of the author been established? Who is the author? Has the person been mentioned in other texts or bibliographies of other texts? What is the author’s standing in the scholarly community? Is the person a teacher or researcher from a reputable academic institution? Is the author respected and well-received?

5. The credibility of the source

Check out whether the source is relevant to your thesis or question? If the source argues thoughtfully and logically, helps you look at something differently, and gives you possible answers for your evidence for your thesis, then retain and utilize it.

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Discuss the various steps of Researching Secondary Sources?

Steps of Researching Secondary Sources:

  • Start with a book search. Go to a Public Library or College Library or Web for government documents.
  • Search the online catalog. There will be keys for ‘Author’, ‘Subject’, ‘title’, and keyword. Initial searching for ‘subject would be suitable. Type in keywords from your research question or thesis. If there as primary texts involved, type those names, one can see anthologies criticism following the primary text in the academic Libraries.
  • If you have located the possible books, write down the call number reference number, so that you can find the Sources Then proceed to the exact shelf, locate the books, observing the nearby books, about 100 in case they might be of some help, Look at the Bibliography of the book for tips to other texts and follow up on those leads as well as keeping the one You are currently Researching on.
  • If your research paper requires updated information or analysis, you are currently researching on a combination of journals, the web, and the interviews might be better.
  • Journal articles can prove to be relevant in the same way as books for the particular research paper you are writing, unless you are specializing in the content of magazines (analysis) as part of your topic, focus more on academic journals.
  • Most Libraries have an “Index” menu on their catalog screens. Indices and other specialized periodical databases are categorized subject-wise Follow the online instructions or consult your reference Librarian for help if required.
  • The main problem with Journals is that you cannot take them out of Library and borrow them. If you find a journal (discussing) having your topic, record all the pertinent information and locate a place usually called the stacks. Your source would be probably bound with other issues from that year into a book format, tracked down on the shelf li any other book so you have to utilize it right there and then except in cases of your topic being found in the most current issue of the journal (which will be in the magazine’ or periodical reading room).
  • The web is a very crucial tool, but it has to be utilized carefully. Anyone can post fake information on the internet, posing problems of authority and validity. Some tools to be used are:

Internet Resources by Subject


Reference Desks


Purdue library’s virtual reference desk




The Virtual Reference Desk


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Define Para Language

Para language means ‘like a language’. Nonverbal aspects of the spoken words are known as Paralanguage.

Feature of Paralanguage

1. Voice

 When we talk of voice we have to keep three things in mind

  • Tone -The quality of voice is called tone. Volume is the softness or loudness of voice changed according to the audience and the distance between speaker and listener; a loud tone indicates aggression which has a negative impact.
  • Speed is another feature of a voice. Rapid speech indicates excitement or nervousness. Other qualities like clear pronunciation, good accent, rhythm are also important.
  • Pitch — High or low note of the scale. A high note is usually louder and heard at a long distance. A high-pitched voice is often jarring.
  • Stress on words — Stress on a particular word or syllable can convert the original meaning of the sentence.

2. Pause or Silence

An effective way of communication. A pause before or after certain words can make the words stand out from the rest. Silence can be used, deliberately to convey certain feelings like anger or displeasure.

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Give a specimen of a Project Report

Give a specimen of a Project Report?

Given below is a sample report to help students understand the structure of a Project Report:


Pharmaceuticals Formulations Programme of Jeevan Dhara Pharmaceuticals Limited

A. Introduction to the Project

  1. Jeevan Dhara Ltd. (JDL) an existing profit-making company is engaged in the business of trading and selling pharmaceuticals. The company was incorporated on 2nd September 1998. A brief company profile, giving the proposed installed capacity and the various formulations, to be manufactured by JDL is given in Annexure-I
  2. JDL now proposes to:
  • Setup facilities for the manufacture of pharmaceutical formulations tablets, capsules, injectables (powder and liquid).
  • Setup a modern R&D center to develop new processes and products in the field of Pharmaceuticals.
  • Augmentation of long-term working capital for the proposed project.

3. The cost of the above project is estimated at 1,025 lakhs and is proposed to be financed by way of public issues of 61.00 lakh equity shares of 210 each for cash at par aggregating to 2610 lakhs (including promoters’ contributions of 275 lakhs), a term loan of 400 lakhs and a state subsidy of 15 lakhs.
The purpose of this appraisal is to enable the company to raise funds in the shape of equity capital from the primary market and seek term loan assistance from Bankers/Financial Institutions.

B. Management Profile

  1. Company Profile. A brief company profile of JDL is as under.

Constitution: Public Limited Company
Date of Incorporation: 02.09.1999
Registered Office: 15, Shopping Complex, No. 6
Naraina Vihar, Phase I, Delhi
Plant Locations: Plot No. XY-4000 (i) & (ii), Phase VI
Bawal Industrial Area, Haryana
Sector: Complete plant for the manufacturing of
Project Type formulation, tablets, capsules, and injectables.


2. Promoters Background. The company was incorporated as a Public Ltd. company under the name of Jeevan Dhara Ltd. on 02-09-99 by Mr. R. Khanna, Mr. K.D. Sen, Mr. Verma, and Mr. Varun Vashishth.

  • Mr. R. Khanna, Chairman, aged 45 years is a Post Graduate of Science with Chemistry. He has been associated with JDL. from the very beginning. He has been in the Drug industry for the last 15 years and gained varied experience in this industry. He has been a consultant to a number of pharmaceutical companies since 1986 and has promoted an export company in the name and style of “Jeevandhara Export Pvt. Ltd.” where he is holding the position of Managing Director. The company has achieved a sales turnover of 391.00 lakhs (100% exports) in the first half of the financial year ending 20th September 1997.
  • Shri K.D. Sen, Managing Director, aged 45 years has been associated with JDL, since incorporation.

Position of Mr. K.D. Sen in other group companies is as under

Company Position Nature Of Business
Jeevan Dhara Export Pvt. Ltd. Director Export of pharmaceutical formulation
Jeevan Dhara Pvt. Ltd. Partner Market consultancy to the pharmaceutical


  • Mr. Verma Executive Director, aged 43 years is a Post Graduate with a diploma in Pharmacy has been associated with various Medical Institutions and has got rich experience in institutional sales and C&F operations.

The position of Mr. Verma in other group companies is as under:

Company Position Nature Of Business
Jeevan Dhara Export Pvt. Ltd. Director Export of pharmaceutical formulation
Jeevan Dhara Pvt. Ltd. Partner C&F Operations


  • Mr. Varun Vashishth, Director, aged 45 years is a Science graduate having over a decade’s experience in overall working with the pharmaceutical industry including consultancy, distribution, export, and O&M activities.
  1. Brief History/Current Operations. The company was incorporated as a Public Ltd. Company in September 1999 to manufacture and market pharmaceuticals in India as well as in the international market. The company started the business with the export of its products to countries like Africa, Europe, and southeast Asian countries through its promoter company M/s. Jeevan Dhara Exports Pvt. Ltd.

During the year 1994-95, the company made a modest beginning. During the first 6 months of the current year, the company had a sales of 28.79 lacks with a net profit of (2.58 lacks, The company with the start of modest beginning, is aimed at substantial growth.

The financial figures for the first 6 months of operations are given below:

  6 months ending
30-09-1999 (₹ in Lacks)
Sales 32.70
PBT 2.50
PAT 2.35
Share Capital (including share application money) 40.46


The company has confirmed Orders of about ₹90 lakhs.

Tax Status of Promoters

Name Latest Return
Latest Assessment
1. Mr. R. Khanna 1993-94 1992-93
2. Mr. K.D. Sen 1993-94 1992-93
3. Mr. Verma 1993-94 1992-93
4. Mr. Varun Vashishth 1993-94 1992-93


  1. Management and Organizations. The company is a Board company. Present Board of JDL, comprises the following Directors:

(i) Mr. R. Khanna – Chairman
(ii) Mr. K.D. Sen – Managing Director
(iii) Mr. Verma – Executive Director
(iv) Mr. Varun Vashishth – Director

The day-to-day operations of JDL are looked after by Mr. R. Khanna and assisted by experienced professionals. Mr. Verma looks after the purchase and after completion of the project, he shall be looking after production also. Mr. Varun Vashishth is in charge of marketing activities and human resource development of the company. JDL appointed Mr. Govind Handa, B. Pharma, (Vice President), Mr. Sunil Sharma B.A. (Export Manager), Mr. Mohan Arora, B.Sc. (Marketing Manager), Mr. Rajat Goyal (Manager HRD), and has also engaged Mr. Prem Agarwal, B.Com., F.C.A. as Financial Advisor. JDL, however, proposes to strengthen its administration, finance, and production areas by recruiting experienced professionals in the due course of time.

  1. Capital Structure. JDL is a public limited company that came into existence in September 1999. JDL is presently a closely, held, non-listed company, and the entire paid-up share capital is held by promoters, and share application money has been brought by promoters, their friends, and associates.

C. The Project

(i) Formal Proposal:

  • To set up facilities for the manufacture of pharmaceutical formulations viz. tablets, capsules, Injectables (Liquid and powder).
  • To set up a modern R&D center to develop new processes and products in the field of Chemicals/Formulations.
  • Augmentation of working capital for the proposed project.

The installed capacities after completion of the proposed project will be as under :

Item Proposed installed capacity  
Tablets 3,450 lakh No, p.a.
Capsules 350 lakh No, p.a.
-Liquid ampoules/vials 220 lakh No, p.a.
-Powder vials 135 lakh No, p.a.


The above formulations will be mainly in the category of analgesic, antibiotics, anti-tuberculosis, anti-inflammatory, a cardiovascular drug, anti psychotropic drugs, tranquilizers, antacids, iron, proteins, and Vitamins, etc. A detailed list of categories of formulations is given in Annexure I.

(ii) Location. The project is being set up in a sprawling 20,000 sq. meters area in one of the model industrial belts of Haryana, i.e., Bawal Industrial Area, Haryana, which is considered self-sufficient so far as the industrial infrastructure is connected. The location is well connected with Rail & Road.

(iii) Land & Building. JDL has already acquired land measuring 10,000 sq. meters at Plot No. XY-4000(1) & (II), Phase VI, Bawal Industrial Area, Haryana, which is registered in the name of the company. The total cost of the land is 50.00 lakhs excluding site development of 15,00 lacks. Approximately 60,000 sq. ft. constructed area is estimated for the plant with first-class brickwork and RCC construction. The total estimated cost of the building works out to 243.50 lakhs as per the estimate of the Architect M/s. Login Associates Pvt. Ltd. The construction of the building will commence from 07/10/94 and will be completed by 30th May 1995.

(iv) Manufacturing Process. The required raw material/mixed in stainless steel vessels under controlled conditions of temperature, pH, pressure and mixing time, etc. under hygienic conditions. The preparations are then filled in sterilized vials, ampoules, and bottles. JDL proposes to adopt a comprehensive in-built system of quality control for ensuring the manufacture of end-products in conformity with the IP/BP/USP specifications. Necessary, approval from the drug authority needed would be obtained by JDL.

(v) Technical Arrangements. For the implementations of the proposed scheme, JDL has engaged the services of M/s. Ganga Tech Ltd. Licensing Delhi, to make available all information and technology to manufacture tablets, capsules, and injectables (Liquid and Powder). Ganga Tech Ltd. is a proprietary concern with Sh. Virat Kohli as the Chief consultant, S of Virat Kohli is a pharmacist by profession. He has a wide-ranging experience in Project Management and Control, Designing Formulation Plant. Layouts, Technology Sourcing, and Acquisitions, Arrangements. He has arranged various collaborations with renowned unions. He has undergone a specialized course in Management of companies of America, Europe, Japan, and the Government Technology transfer, Patents, and Information Systems and has been instrumental in starting International Trade for Indian Companies having procured orders worth over 30 million in the very first year from Europe. Ganga Tech Ltd. has provided the technical know-how and other viz, Himalaya Drugs and related services to different companies call-Roorkee, Med Lab pharmaceuticals-Mandi, Bajaj Ltd.-Shimla, Galaxy Pharmaceuticals – Rewari, etc. Soviet

The company has also engaged Mr. Govind Handa, B. Pharma (Gold Medalist from Delhi University) as Vice President (Technical) having a wide experience of 11 years to manufacturing pharmaceutical formulations. Mr. Handa has earlier worked with M/s. K Pharma Ltd. as a manufacturing chemist and with M/s Future Medicine Pharmaceuticals Ltd. as Managers (Productions) and then as General Manager (Commercial & Technical). There he was looking after the production of tablets, capsules, dry syrups, and injectables and related works with it and has also wide experience in handling plant independently and has wide experience in dealings with Excise, P.F., E.S.J., Labour Laws, Manpower handling, etc.

(vi) Procurement of Plant and Machinery. Based on discussion and consultation with Ganga Tech Ltd., JDL has finalized items of plant and machinery (details given in Annexure-5). While selecting the machinery, JDL and Ganga Tech Ltd. have kept in view aspects like cost-effectiveness, track record and reputation of the machinery suppliers, delivery schedule, balancing and synchronization of different machinery from reputed manufacturers/suppliers like M/s. Zintach, M/s. Lenix and M/s. Shah & Shah.
The entire plant and machinery and equipment would be procured indigenously. The major equipment required for the project are vial washing machine (jet type), automatic vial filling machine, vial inspection machine, ampoule washing machine, 4 head ampoule filling and sealing machine, Ampoule inspection machine, powder filling machine, 4 head aluminum cap sealing machine, vial labeling machine, Autoclave, S.S. Pressure Vessel, Air Pressure Regulator, Dehumidifier. PP Cap sealing machine, Powder injection filling machine, Automatic Capsule filling machine, Rapid mixer granulator, Air pressure regulator. Compression machines, FB dryer, and various laboratory equipment.

(e) Raw materials. All the major raw materials proposed to be used by JDL for the manufacture of pharmaceutical formulations are available indigenously. These include Calatorie, Ampicillin and Cloxacillin, Amikacin sulfate. Ciprofloxacin, Famotidine, Nalidixic Acid Metronidazole, Prednisolone, Amoxycillin, Diclofenac, Chloramphenicol, Ampicillin Tribydrate, Tetracycline, Doxycycline. The packing material like Aluminium foil blister, printed cartons, corrugated boxes, glass bottles, tumblers, plastic jars, PP. caps are also available locally. The promoters have established contacts and are already in the line, IDL does not envisage any difficulty in meeting its requirement of drugs and packing materials from indigenous/local/ overseas sources. At optimum capacity utilization of 90%, the cost of raw materials and packing material is estimated ₹1727.65 lakh

(viii) Utilities: Manpower requirement. At present, the company has 5 employees. The company purposes to induct employees as per recruitment plan as given below:

Category Const. Period 1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year
Managerial 5 22 11 8
Technical …. 19 5 1
Clerks 3 5 3
Medical Reps. 12 40 20 40
Skilled Workers …. 25 6 5
Unskilled …. 30 5 5
Peons 5 10 ….
Total 25 151 47 62


The company will have around 165 employees in its first year, 216 employees in the second year, and 305 employees in the third year on its payroll. JDL proposes to recruit chemists from the Industry and most of the semiskilled and unskilled workers locally and impart them on plant training. The unit is being located in Industrial Area, Bawal, therefore, the company does not foresee any problem in getting skilled and semi-skilled persons and the required workforce which is locally available.

  • Power & Electricity. The total power requirement is estimated at 280 KVA for which the company will apply to the Haryana State Electricity Board immediately after the start of construction. However, the company also proposes to install a 200 KVA D.G. Set as a standby arrangement for uninterrupted Power Supply.
  • Effluent disposal. The main effluents from the proposed project will be processed waste water which would not contain any hazardous contaminants. However, JDL would be required to obtain approval from the competent authority of Haryana Pollution Control Board for the proposed project.
  • Water. For the proposed programme the requirement of processed water is estimated at 8 KLPD proposed to be met from Company’s ow tube well at the factory site, However, JDL proposes to install on number DM water plant of 10 KLPD capacity to meet its requiremen of demineralized water, to be used for making liquid injectables, distillation unit of capacity of 10 KLPD is also proposed to be installed! by JDL
  • Steam/Fuel. The requirement of pyrogen free steam for the proposed project estimated at 1,465 kg per day is proposed to be met the from electrically heated boilers (attached to autoclaves) specially fitted with pyrogen filters.
  • Refrigeration. The requirement of refrigeration/air conditioning for the proposed project estimated at 120 TR is proposed to be met by installing a 120 tonnes capacity central air-conditioning plant and split air conditioning plant.
  • Compressed air. The requirement of compressed air estimated at 3000 litres per minute is proposed to be met by installing an air compressor of suitable capacity. For maintaining inert atmosphere in the Ampoules/Vials Section, JDL from the local dealers.

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Define Proxemics

Define Proxemics

The study of space as a communicative system is defined as Proxemics. It is the way people structure space around them. The study of distance in social settings. This can be done with visual cues, such as from eye contact or gestures, using sound and other physical properties like smell and taste. Proxemics meaning Proxemics refers to how the human body communicates with other humans and basic life functions. The properties of sounds, smells, temperature are used to not only establish a place but also size within that space among other things (e.g., social/behavioral rules.)

The 1st definition above states that proxemics is about understanding physical cues as well as immaterial ones such as eye contact or gestures in order for communication between people to occur. This is called nonverbal communication because while language can communicate words and meaning within sentences, these subtle physical cues are important in articulating a person’s social relationships with others around them. We also use other sensory avenues of interaction such as taste (e.g., eating) or smell(s). During my research on the issue, I came across how proxemics according to Myers some children may not become good at communicating by sound.

Americans divide personal space into four distinct zones

• The Public zone starts at about 12 feet from the person and stretches back to the limits of sight.
• The Social zone reaches from 4 to 12 feet.
• The personal zone ranges from 2 to 4 feet.
• The Intimate zone stretches from 0 to 2 feet.

These things should be kept in mind when we talk of space and surroundings


Messages are represented by objects. Not only hairstyles, jewelry, clothing but also the aesthetic aspect of spaces and use of color becomes its feature. E.g., A space decoration and design of an office.


Our environment is well designed to communicate meanings.


 Human beings like to protect and control their space. One feels angry when someone occupies one’s assigned seat.

Seating Arrangement

A comfortable arrangement for 2 people at a table is to sit corner to corner. This allows for maximum eye contact. Thus, our choice of seats is another important feature of proxeni’s

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Define gender sensitivity. How is it essential in a 21st-century corporate environment?

Gender sensitivity means when you are sensitive towards the other gender in terms of respect, behavior, language, gestures, day to day interaction; acknowledging the equality within gender relations.

In the 21st Century, women €1fe rising to the challenges, creating a space for themselves, and excelling in various professions. One can perceive a gradual shift in favor of women who are considered more reliable, serious, and disciplined than men. In the past 100 odd years, there have been so many women achievers:
Kalpana Chawla, Barkha Dutt, Kiran Bedi, Sunita Williams, Shabana Azmi, Renuka Chaudhary, Arundhati Roy, etc. Women have been excelling m their chosen fields which are as diverse as art, entertainment, journalism, space, banking, finance, academics, medicine, IT. These women are regularly covered in prominent magazines/ newspapers. These women stepped out of their homes, broke stereotypes, and are an inspiration to millions of women who are trying to emulate them. Today parents are willing to educate their daughters and are thinking about life beyond marriage for their girls.

Companies that are catering to multicultural societies and markets are seriously restructuring their recruitment policies. Gender disparity is recognized as a serious problem and steps are taken to adopt gender-friendly policies. Companies are rolling out the red carpet for professional women by training and investing in gender diversity programs. Nowadays women are sought after not for the stereotype of the attractive faces of the company but because women represent a large pool of untapped talent; women add a new dimension to the management groups. Women are instrumental in introducing an ·alternative perspective of the negotiating table. Women are experts m multi-tasking, innovating, thinking out of the box and these qualities they bring to the board room/workplace. Companies seek creative viewpoints, new perspectives and lateral thinking and women provide all these ‘aspects so that competition can, tackled head-on.
Thus if women are given their respective dues in the workplace then gender sensitivity can be properly implemented.

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