E-Commerce

Net marketplaces

Explain the types of Net marketplaces.

Explain types of Net marketplaces.

The four main types of “pure” Net marketplaces are:

  1. Electronic distributors are independently owned intermediaries who provide a single source for industrial customers to purchase or maintain indirect products and make repairs. Electronic distributors operate in the horizontal market and serve a variety of industries with products from different vendors.
  2. Electronic contracting companies are independently owned intermediaries that connect with hundreds of online vendors who provide millions of maintenance, repair and labor products to commercial companies that pay fees to enter the market. Electronic procurement companies operate in the horizontal market, where long-term contract purchases are used to purchase indirect goods.
  3. Exchanges are independently owned online marketplaces that connect hundreds of sellers with thousands of potential buyers in a dynamic, real-time environment. They are usually vertical markets in which direct inputs (goods and services) can be purchased directly. Exchanges create money by putting a charge for every transaction.
  4. Industry consortia are industry-owned vertical marketplaces which can make lengthy deal purchases of straight contributions from a limited pool of invited members. The consortium works to decrease supply chain effectiveness by incorporating the industry supply chain throughout an ordinary system and computing stage.

Net marketplaces can also be categorized as:

  1. Buy-centric Markets: These marketplaces are organized by large and influential buyers in a place where small and retailers sell their products, such as freemarkets.com.
  2. Sell-centric Markets: These markets are organized by large and influential sellers as a place where small and fragmented buyers can buy. The organizers of these markets derive revenue from advertisements, commission on sales etc. e.g., grainger.com
  3. Neutral Exchanges: These markets appear when both the buyers and sellers are fragmented. These markets are organized by a third party who creates a neutral exchange and performs the transactions through a bid system. e.g., Arbinet.

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Advantages and Disadvantages of online education

Online Education or E-Learning is a kind of education where students have a computer or a phone with an internet connection and can learn from tutors or from recorded videos online.

Advantages of online education or e-learning to students and universities

  • Accessibility: Students can attend online classes anywhere. They can attend classes completely based on their convenience and they are able to accomplish their courses completely via the Internet including all the administrative aspects.
  • Choices: Students can enroll for courses in different subjects. The selection of courses is much broader than traditional courses.
  • Flexibility: There is much more flexibility in online learning and online courses. Rather than attending the same classes at the same time on the same days of the week, online courses are structured in that way that allow students to complete work at their own pace. For students who need to work while they are earning a degree or have families at home, the ability to work around schedules is often the most important advantage of online education.
  • Communication: Students can interact and interact with students from all over the country or the world.
  • High Quality: The quality of education received in the virtual classroom is just as good as or better than in standard classroom settings.
  • Cost: Online education is not as expensive as traditional education. The cost to attend online universities and earn one of the many online bachelor degrees is quite cost effective.
  • Time: Time is not a factor, as students can attend lectures, complete assignments and take exams in their spare time. They can make a program that suits them.
  • Availability: Documents, copies, live discussions, and training materials are archived, recorded, read, downloaded, and printed via email or school website. Tutors are also present at suitable period and offer fast feedback through email.
  • Faster awarding of degrees: Because they are so flexible, students can complete degree requirements at faster rates than at other universities. Online degree programs use this flexibility to create accelerated degree programs. With more streamlined and pertinent courses and students working at their own pace according to their own schedules, it is possible to graduate from an online college in considerably less time than from the local university.
  • Good Faculty: Contrary to what some people might think, online colleges have some of the best faculty in the country. Online schools strive to recruit the best and brightest people in their field for a professorship. Teachers at online schools tend to have more direct experience working in their industry than academics working at other universities. Online universities only hire professors with the best academic credentials and real life experience to back that up.

Disadvantages of e-learning to students and universities

  • Employment: Not all business sectors recognize online degrees.
  • Oral Communication: Due to email or text chat interactions, people may not have the opportunity to improve their verbal communication skills.
  • Lack of interaction: Although students communicate with their teachers through an online learning system, questions and discussions from other students are not asked during the conference.
  • Fraud: Many online degrees are not valid or accredited.
  • Limited Courses: Not all courses are available online.
  • Difficult to manage: Sometimes managing education online can be very difficult. Lack of time is one of the reasons a student is making changes to online learning. You find it complicated to balance work time and college. But even when they study online, they should have time to earn grades and pass the syllabus. Students have a pre-defined schedule in college and school. At the same time, they must plan for themselves during online studies, otherwise all their effort will be wasted. 
  • Lack of technical skills: One of the main drawbacks of online education is the lack of technical skills required for online graduation. Most people are still not technically advanced enough to deal with the methods used to improve online education. Even many teachers and administrative staff have difficulty implementing teaching programs or supervising students. Teachers, in particular, have earned their certification through traditional means and, for the most part, are not well versed in the team.
  • Limited reach of information technology: One of the most important things to teach online is the computer and the Internet connection. However, people in regional and remote areas still cannot access this product. Buying them a computer is very expensive. In addition, online education helps students from various fields to meet and learn together, but at the same time make it difficult for students cannot ask someone else or face a technical problem with her. But you can’t discuss it, because you might not get anything in the study group from your area.
  • Inappropriate course design: Online course designers can sometimes expect the rise of computer technology. This led to the development of training courses for implementation of computers that were expected to be available in the future but was not available.
  • High Net Cost: The cost of graduating online is not always as low as students think. Due to the cost of accessories and multimedia materials included in the course, some titles may be more expensive than traditional ones. These costs may exceed accommodation and travel costs related to local education.

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What is E-banking with its types and benefits?

What is E-banking?

E-banking or Internet banking indicates any person with an individual computer or a mobile phone and a browser with an internet connection can easily joined to his/her bank’s website, application, or portal to carry out any of the virtual banking roles. With the help of E-banking or internet banking people can handles their banking services easily from any place. They can easily transfer funds, operate their bank accounts, investments, cards, loans, insurances, and many more with banks with the help of e-banking. To operate internet banking customer needs to register himself/herself with the bank to avail the services of internet banking and then the user needs to set up a password and other details to verify the user. People can also use some third-party apps to accept or receive payments from bank accounts like Paytm, PhonePe, Google Pay, PayPal, etc. It encourages paperless or cashless transactions. In internet banking or e-banking method, every bank has integrated records that are web-enabled. All the services that the bank has allowed on the internet are shown on the Menu of the bank’s portals or applications. Any service can be picked and then the interaction as stated by the type of service.

Types of E-Banking services

  1. Internet Banking
  2. ATM
  3. Mobile Banking
  4. Credit Card
  5. Debit Card
  6. Point of Sale (POS)
  7. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
  8. Electronic Fund Transfer (EFT)

Benefits of Internet Banking

  • It provides 24/7 banking services to users.
  • Users are up to date with their bank accounts.
  • It is convenient and easy for the users as they don’t have to go to banks all time.
  • It is a secure way because users can avail their services with the PIN or an OTP which user received on their registered mobile number.
  • Consumers can easily pay their bills and recharge their phones easily without waiting in queues.

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How is E-commerce facilitating Online Travel and Banking Services?

How is E-commerce facilitating Online Travel and Banking Services? E-commerce is facilitating online travel and banking services which are explained below:-

E-commerce is facilitating online travel and tourism

Travel and tourism have emerged as the largest service sold over the Internet. Online travel and tourism services provide the same connectivity on the World Wide Web (www) so that customers can search, select, and then book appropriate flights and fares. It comprises online travel & tour agents, airlines, conventional tour agents, and reservation methods.

The air travel industry is well appropriate to evaluate the outcomes of product separation. The basic commodity characteristics, i.e., airline tickets, are sufficiently standardized and have a good sense of detail, which allows them to clearly distinguish the benefits of online travel services.

Benefits of online travel services

  • Low overhead costs: The cost of providing online travel services to a wide range of customers over the world is very low. The tickets can be delivered online without any physical contact with the customer.
  • No commuting time or traffic jams: The customer can avail the services sitting at home, throughout the day. He need not commute to acquire the services thereby avoiding traffic jams.
  • Ease of set up: Establishing online travel business is easy. As more and more people use the Internet, the services have a broader customer base.
  • Information sharing: The customers benefit from the large amount of free information available on the Internet which can be accessed anytime.
  • Cost savings: With disintermediation in the channel of distribution, the customers benefit from the reduced costs.
  • Online Travel offers a one-stop shop, business and leisure travel experience where customers can find content, community, commerce and customer service.

E-commerce is facilitating banking services

Electronic banking saves time and money for users. This provides a cheaper alternative to bank branches and allows remote customers to join banks.

Benefits of online banking services

  • User can easily check the balance in his account and also can set up his account to pay off his credit card dues automatically every month.
  • User can pay his bills through online banking. The cost of paying bills electronically is less than the cost of postage of sending a large number of payments each month.
  •  User can transfer money between accounts without waiting in queues and without filling the deposit slips.
  • User can receive additional services such as phone banking.
  • Online banking can also help in international capital raising, cash management, trades and services, foreign exchange, risk management investments, merchant services and special services for international traders.

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What are Internet protocols and utility programs?

What are Internet protocols and utility programs?

The general set of rules that define how different devices in a network will communicate are called protocols. A common set of rules called protocols is created to conduct a hassle-free data transfer to and from a computer network using various technologies such as Ethernet, Token Ring, or any type of connection such as bus or star. TCP/IP, FTP, HITP are the most common protocols. Apart from SMTP, POP, SSL, Telnet, Finger, Ping, and Tracert are some of the important utilities that make the following Internet services possible:

Internet protocols utility programs

(i) TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is a collection of protocols. It provides the rules of communication between computers using different technology.

(ii) FTP (File Transfer File) is used to transfer files from server to client and vice versa.

(iii) HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) delivers the requested web pages, allowing users to view them.

(iv) SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) enables mail to be routed to a mail server and then picked up by the recipient’s server. POP allows recipients to download mail from the server.

(v) IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol) enables mail to be sorted before it is downloaded by the recipients.

(vi) SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) ensures that information transmissions are encrypted.

(vii) Telnet is a utility program that enables remote working.

(viii) Finger is a utility program that allows you to find out who is logged in on a remote network.

(ix) Ping is a utility program that allows users to verify the connection between a client and a server. Tracert lets you track the route of messages from the client to the remote computer.

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Technical key areas | future expansion of the Internet?

Technical key areas | future expansion of the internet?

Four technical key areas play a large role in the future expansion of the Internet:

Traditional telecommunications companies. Traditional telecom companies are rapidly moving from providing simple services like phone calls to more technical services that provide solutions to all types of customers. They are developing new technologies for high-bandwidth communication in existing networks, such as XDSL technologies, faster switches, and new types of compression technologies to reduce the amount of data sent over the network.

Satellite technology vendor. New broadband networks with global reach are being established by satellite companies.

Wireless network provider. Technical Key of Wireless networks are the latest types of networks being converted for Internet use. Local wireless networks will soon be found in every home, where all devices will be able to communicate via Wireless Internet Protocol.

Cable companies. Cable networks for television can also be used for more than just television. Many cable providers began to prepare networks for two-way Internet traffic, by introducing so-called set-top boxes, which act as converters and separators for inbound and outbound traffic, as opposed to voice and video. In addition, data is also sent.

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Short note on the hardware | launch a business on the Internet.

Short note on the hardware | launch a business on the Internet.

In the phase of building an Internet presence, decisions are made regarding the hardware (speed, quality, reliability, and durability), the software and the security required to ensure reliable risk-free exchanges between your customers and your business.

Hardware. First, you need a computer with a lot of RAM memory, a powerful Central Processing Unit (CPU), and a fast link to the Internet. You should have large storage space. The larger the disk space, the more the data can be stored. A processor with good speed (which is measured in Gigahertz or GTTs) will lead to quicker processing and downloads. You also need a lot of Random-Access Memory (RAM). The larger the RAM storage, the more users it can handle at a tune. The remaining hardware includes a monitor, a mouse, and a modem. The faster the modem, the more bandwidth (speed) it will provide.

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What is an asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) network? Explain

What is an asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) network? Explain

Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) network. ATM is a high-speed networking standard designed to support both coke and data communications. ATM is normally utilized by internet service providers on their private long-distance networks. ATM operates at the data link layer (Liver -1 in the els1 model) over either fiber or twisted-pair cable.

ATM differs from more common data link technologies like Ethernet in several ways. For example, ATMs utilize no routing. Hardware devices known as ATM switches establish point-to-point connections between endpoints and data flows directly front source to destination Additionally. instead of using variable-length packets as Ethernet does, ATM utilizes fixed-size cells. AIM cells are 53 bytes in length, which includes 48 bytes of data and 5 bytes of header information.

Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) network technology is designed to improve utilization and Quality of Service (QoS) on high-traffic networks. Without routing and with fixed-size cells, networks car’ much more easily manage bandwidth under ATM than under Ethernet. The high cost of ATMs relative to Ethernet is one factor that has limited its adoption to the backbone and other high-performance, specialized networks.

The ATM reference model consists of the latter plane, which spans all layers:

  • Control. This aircraft is responsible for generating and managing signaling requests.
  • User. This aircraft is responsible for managing the transfer of information.
  • Management. This plane consists of two components:
  • Layer Management Manages layer-specific tasks such as detection of failures and protocol issues.
  • Aircraft Management Manages and coordinates the tasks associated with the entire system

The ATM reference model consists of the subsequent ATM layers:

  • Physical layer. In line with the physical coating of the OSI position model, the ATM physical layer manages medium-dependent program. 
  • AIM layer. just like the ATM optimization layer, the ATM layer is just like the information link layer of the OSI reference model. The ATM layer is responsible for the instant sharing of virtual circuits over a physical link (cell multiplexing) and the passage of cells through the ATM network (cell relay). To do this, it uses the VPI and VCI information within the header of every ATM cell.
  • ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL). Combined with the ATM layer, AAL is roughly just like the information link layer of the OSI model. AAL is answerable for separating high level protocols from the tiny print of ATM processes. The optimization layer prepares user data for change into cells and splits the information into 48-byte cell payloads. 

Finally, the upper layers on top of the AAL accept the user data, organize it into packets, and hand it over to the AAL.

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What are IPS OSI Model | 7 Layers Explained

What are IPS OSI Model | 7 Layers Explained

The Internet Protocol Suite (IPS) is a set of protocols that enable communication between nodes connected to the Internet. These protocols are based on seven layers of the OSI (Open System Interconnection) reference model developed by ISO.

The seven layers are IPS OSI Model explained below:

(i) Physical layer. It is the lowest layer that transmits the raw bits over the communication channel. It uses modem and telephone networks. It converts signals into bits for outgoing messages and into bits for incoming messages.

(ii) Data link layer. It is responsible for converting packets into frames and vice versa. It is responsible for traffic control, frame sequencing, frame error checking and attaching MAC.

(iii) Network layer. It controls the operation of the subnet. It is responsible for data addressing and transmission of information. It routes messages to multiple nodes and handles network congestion.

(iv) Transport layer. It accepts data from the session layer, breaks it into smaller units (if necessary), passes these to the network layer and ensures that all pieces arrive at the other end correctly. It manages the data flow, acknowledging the successful transmission. Requests retransmission if the packet is damaged.

(v) Session layer. It enables users on different machines to establish sessions between them, maintain and expire sessions. This allows traffic to move at the same tune in both directions. It implements security protocols to control access to session information.

(vi) Presentation layer. It allows application processes to decide on a common format for representing information in the form of text or graphics. It is responsible for the syntax and semantics of the transmitted information.

(vii) Application layer. It ensures the delivery of data from another application to a certain application. It communicates to other applications, e-mail, or the actual application in use for tile transfer.

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Write a short note on the Domain Name System

Write a short note on the Domain Name System

The network layer is responsible for addressing the nodes and the way they are connected. Each node on the net includes a unique IP address. Since IP addresses are difficult to remember, the Domain Name System is placed on top of IP addresses, which are much easier to remember. For many people, www.hp.com is much easier to remember than its corresponding IP address (192.151.11.13). It is possible to own quite a single IP address assigned through the so-called round-robin mechanism. Clients are assigned one of each of the four machines to be on the same local level on all computers. Each name maps to 1 or more IP addresses and each IP address can map to 1 or more domain names. If there is quite a single IP address per name, that means there are multiple servers within the same location, sharing the incoming load of requests, and if multiple domains point to the same IP address, perhaps multiple clients. ISP’s site sharing a large web server.

Utilizing the www.example.com URL, example.com is the area name, and www is the hostname. DNS goal maps www.example.com to an IP address (eg 192.0.2.1). At the point when a client needs to stack a site page, there should be a change between the IP address composed by a client into his internet browser (www.example.com) to find the www.example.com website. important for.

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Write a short note on static IP addresses

A short note | static IP addresses

Static IP addresses is that if the connection breaks down and you reconnect, you can continue with all your activities as if nothing has happened; downloads, etc. were put on hold, but not stopped. Today ISPs use a range of IP addresses, which are assigned to certain users, at the time of the login. Another reason that the IP address range is still not exhausted is that most companies use network address translation (NAT).

NAT means that the company’s Intranet uses a certain range of IP addresses, which may be used. by someone else on the Internet. These intranet IP addresses are not visible to the outside world. At the company firewall, the internal IP addresses are translated to External IP addresses, which the company has bought officially. This does not only reduce the risk of a break-in, attackers never see the original IP address, and the complete internal network architecture is hidden by this mechanism. A company today buys parts of a Class C network and hides the rest of the required IP addresses behind a NAT service.

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What are the Internet protocols and utility programs?

What are the Internet protocols and utility programs

The general set of rules that define how different devices in a network will communicate are called protocols. A common set of rules called protocols are created to conduct a hassle-free data transfer to and from a computer network using various technologies such as Ethernet, Token Ring, or any type of connection such as bus, star. TCP/IP, FTP, HITP are the most common protocols. Apart from SMTP, POP, SSL, Telnet, Finger, Ping, and Tracert are some of the important utilities that make the following Internet protocols and utility programs:

(i) TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is a collection of protocols. It provides the rules of communication between computers using different technology.

(ii) FTP (File Transfer File) is used to transfer files from server to client and vice versa.

(iii) HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) delivers the requested web pages, allowing users to view them.

(iv) SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) enables mail to be routed to a mail server and then picked up by the recipient’s server. POP allows recipients to download mail from the server.

(v) IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol) enables mail to be sorted before it is downloaded by the recipients.

(vi) SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) ensures that information transmissions are encrypted.

(vii) Telnet is a utility program that enables remote working.

(viii) Finger is a utility program that allows you to find out who is logged in on a remote network.

(ix) Ping is a utility program that allows users to verify the connection between a client and a server. Tracert lets you track the route of messages from the client to the remote computer.

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